LARPing Ethereum: a Look into NFT Value from Interoperable Utility

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How do we get value from NFTs beyond clout-based value? You can explore value from interoperability along the context of differentiated wallet-based addresses.

Interoperable Utility

NFT value can be derived from its utility through interoperability among metaverse applications

Address LARPing

An Ethereum address is your avatar

Interoperable Utility

  1. [Utility] Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) can derive value from demand generated by its utility.
  2. [Interoperability] The utility of an NFT can be augmented from its interoperable use on multiple applications in the same or different metaverses
  3. [Coordination] An NFT’s interoperable utility is a coordination and implementation matter among applications in metaverses
  4. [Lore] An NFT may be selected because of its lore and significance

Example

Analogy (Ready Player One Metaverse):

Let’s use an example from the popular novel (and movie), Ready Player One.

  1. [Metaverse] There exists a metaverse (the Oasis)
  2. [Applications] There exist multiple applications on that metaverse (for example: Halliday’s Easter Egg Hunt [racing game, maze/treasure hunt], p2p battles)
  3. [NFTs] There exist special items that imbue benefits to characters to use interoperably on multiple applications
  4. [Lore] There exists special lore and significance for each of these items that thus prove it’s selection for utility

What this can hypothetically look like on the blockchain:

  1. [Metaverse] The SandBox is a blockchain-based metaverse
  2. [Applications] Within the SandBox metaverse there are multiple games/applications and let’s say 3 of them are: a racing game, a maze game, and a battle arena
  3. [NFTs] There is a cryptopunk NFT that can be used by your character on all 3 of these games that confer special and distinct benefits
    1. Racing Game: within the race, the cryptopunk NFT manifests itself as a hanging decal on your rearview mirror of the car you use. It gives you +10 horsepower.
    2. Maze/Treasure Hunt: within the maze/treasure hunt, the cryptopunk NFT manifests itself as a mini companion that walks around with you and alerts you whenever you’re close to an exit or treasure along the way.
    3. Battle Arena: within the battles, the cryptopunk NFT manifests itself as a necklace that hangs around your character’s neck. It gives you +10 hp.
  1. [Lore] Let’s say, in this hypothetical situation that this particular cryptopunk NFT has such values because let’s say it has a special and even extreme history and lore attributed to it. Let’s say for example, it was one of the first 5 cryptopunk NFTs and had been involved in a phishing scam where it was stolen and then later recovered from a physical police raid in which the culprit eventually gave up the keys to the stolen cryptopunk. It later then passed through Vitalik’s hands and was finally gifted to its current owner. The legend and lore of the cryptopunk is retained and respected with certain attributes on those different applications/games.

(another way to simply look at this concept that I like to use a lot. Let’s say I have a plain old chopstick. As it stands, it is relatively cheap and almost worthless. But if that chopstick were to have been used to kill Hitler, then its historical significance [and positive contribution to society] imbues it much value)

Address LARPing

One platform hosts multiple applications.

Each application chooses to:

  • use existing platform resources
  • create their own siloed resources

In a virtual world, you interact with applications using money, property, and items. Here are some ways it can look:

  • [Siloed] An application requires you to interact with it naked (without any of your existing external property, items, or money; you can only use what it gives you)
  • [Completely Open] An application allows you to interact with all your stuff, unequivocally 
  • [Partially Open] An application allows you to interact with only some of your stuff
  • [Equivalent Exchange] An application allows you to interact with your stuff only when transformed like for like (external to internal swap)

We already see this on Ethereum.

Ethereum is the platform

The Ethereum address you use is your avatar.

The tokens and NFTs are your gear.

The contracts, DAOs, dApps, and games you interact with are different realms.

In some form or another, we’re all LARPing on Ethereum–with one or many of our pseudonymous addresses. You may have an address specifically for yield farming, a different one for collecting NFTs, another specifically for DAO governance, and on and on.

Each application sees only what it needs to see for its specific function. A DAO only cares about your governance tokens for your voting, yield farms only care about its “crops”, an NFT art gallery only scans for your art NFTs. 

Therefore:

  • Some DeFi applications see us only as farmers.
  • Some games see us only as NFT monster battlers.
  • Some applications see us only as art curators.
  • Some applications see us only as hedge fund managers.
  • Some applications see us only as financial market makers.
  • Some applications see us only as politicians.
  • Some applications see us only as traders.

Each avatar (address) carries its story publicly. Its full history; the paths it has taken. It wears it publicly for all to see on its proverbial sleeve (the blockchain). 

The calluses of yield farming’s astronomically high gas fees during DeFi summer 2020, the collection of art it has purchased along the way, the NFT monsters and pets it holds in reserves, and its political bent from the public votes it has cast. It may show stories of getting front-run on DEX trades when just starting out. Blunders of sending money to the black holes of token contracts while trying to claim airdrops. Its first successful arbitrage trade while getting the hang of things and fortuitous chance encounters of stumbling upon a new project that multiplied its wealth tenfold.

What is your ethereum address?

Maybe you in particular use a single address to yield farm, collect NFT art, battle NFT monsters, and vote on DAOs–a balanced avatar.

Maybe you have many addresses that exclusively interact with different applications depending on its function. One for collecting NFT art. Another for yield farming. Another perhaps holds non-trivial power as an active voting member on DeFi governance. It’s essentially a guild with specialists. You control and spawned all these addresses with the seed phrase you began with. You are the guild master. 

(Truly?) Open Applications

We already see glimmers of interoperability between applications from the base layer of Ethereum. Liquidity providers on automated market maker-based decentralized exchanges are rewarded for their service and get elected to govern those very same platforms from governance token airdrops. Some applications employ indexers to pull on-chain application data on different applications unrelated to it to provide services to yet more distinct applications. Other applications provide pseudo-pawn shops for NFT collectibles and others, formalized lending platforms accepting external collateral for assets of its own or yet more different assets.

Let’s take the “farming kingdom of Cronje”–YEARN’s ecosystem of DeFi plug-and-play–the power of composability: yield farming optimization through the seamless switching of lending providers from dYdX, Aave, and Compound under the yearn.finance umbrella; protocol insurance plugged into its ecosystem underwritten by Nexus Mutual; liquidity expansion from PowerPool’s PowerIndex; and “mergers” to consolidate potential redundancies in specialty–namely the Pickle Finance partnership.

The success of “Cronje’s farming kingdom” provides proof of this concept for application interoperability and composability–a working template of how interoperability provides value to the comprehensive sum of its aggregated DeFi application parts.  

Other similar farming “encampments” have already begun hitching their own proverbial wagons to each other. There are even a few subtly centralized examples (which is an unfortunate byproduct of some builders losing sight of the entire point of all of this). Having truly decentralized and open applications on a decentralized and open platform must allow for unstoppable interoperability. 

These are, after all, possible without permission. They are open protocols, open-sourced contracts which are all free to become templates, inspiration, and plugged in where necessary. The boundaries are publicly blurred. 

However, by applying the concept of interoperability and composability with NFTs, we’re faced with questions of practicality. We have an open platform and applications: NFT platforms, art, galleries, games, and even financial commoditization (but let’s focus on the world of art and gaming for now). Some are completely open but some are not. Each lives on the same blockchain platform, but some remain siloed and can only exist within their own boundaries and rules. 

Specifically with NFT-based games, it brings up a very interesting question. Most games are closed for very important reasons. There are carefully tuned game-dynamics that exist to render gameplay enjoyable–breaking that dynamic results in poor experiences. So, do truly open games or applications with regards to NFT collectibles really make sense? 

Universe Building

The utility of NFT art and collectibles can provide significant value in their interoperability within the various applications they are integrated into. 

Through interoperability, NFTs can cross through bridges between applications. These bridges expand the surface area and addressable markets of the applications beyond their own borders.

Interoperable NFTs therefore have value through utility in their use among many applications.

Many applications find value from the expansion of their addressable markets.
A great example is Cryptomotors.

Leandro, the co-founder of Cryptomotors, has embraced this universe building interoperability thesis head-first. Cryptomotors cars are NFTs that can be used on different metaverses from the get go with differing levels of detail (LOD). As an example, you can own a Cryptomotors Abyssus NFT that represents the car (pictured above). You can race it against other players on Cryptomotors’ own platform and you can also use it on other metaverse platforms as well–from Sandbox to Cryptovoxels to Somnium and to wherever else. Your Cryptomotors car will look “voxel”-ated in the Sandbox and Cryptovoxels metaverse while it will look as sleek as shown here in Somnium or Decentraland. 

Despite the varying levels of detail, your Cryptomotors car is just one single NFT. Think of it as traversing between parallel universes. You own a Cryptomotors car in Somnium in its sleek finely detailed shape, but you can jump on over to the Sandbox metaverse and now it looks pixelated. You are still you. Your Cryptomotors car is still your car.

Here’s how the Abyssus looks like in the Sandbox metaverse
Here’s how the Abyssus looks like in the Somnium metaverse

Your ethereum address is your avatar. The NFTs you hold are your gear. The different metaverse worlds are just parallel universes. And you can traverse them all as you will with your gear–given how the different metaverses handle their borders…

Hermit Kingdoms

External NFT encroachment into an application’s own internal set of NFTs is a point of contention. Certain games and applications are created siloed and closed with their own carefully set rules. That can’t be helped. After all, why would an existing application or game that imbues value to its own set of internal NFTs want to worry about external NFTs taking away value?

I believe this is a question of the game’s or application’s developers. It is also a question of how existing development and future development can be done. Integrating existing games and dynamics with other games or applications requires retrofitting and is a top-down approach of coordination. However, the development space is vast, you can build games and applications from the ground-up to be interoperable from day one. It makes sense that the direction of NFT value generation and accrual lies in interoperability and we should see more applications and games either integrate interoperability or have it from day one.  Adapt or die. 

Universe Plumbing

So, if a particular set of metaverses do not set themselves up as hermit kingdoms and isolate themselves from the rest of the universe, how can interoperability work? What should it look like? 
Continuing the parallel universe (or metaverse) analogy, let’s say I am an Axie monster battler living in the Axie Infinity metaverse but I want to now head over and travel to the Cryptokitties metaverse (fictional for now until Flow builds one on Ethereum) for the first time. What does continuity look like here?

If both metaverses adopt a hermit kingdom isolationist approach even though being built on the same Ethereum platform, then I would be starting over from scratch. If I had a trusty pet Axie in the Axie Inifinity metaverse, I would arrive in the new Cryptokitty world without anything. Of course there are limits to the interoperability of both worlds, but it doesn’t mean it cannot be done. Yes, perhaps I use the same avatar (ethereum address) to interact with both metaverse worlds, but there is no compatibility. 

If both metaverses somehow adopt a completely open approach, then should I in fact be able to travel over with my gear? Why shouldn’t I? Just as with the Cryptomotors approach, two worlds can be completely different–even down to the granularities of the levels of detail–pixelated (Sandbox) vs smooth definition (Somnium). But my Cryptomotors car is still my Cryptomotors car in any metaverse world I choose to visit. My assets are still my assets. 

Truly self-sovereign NFT ownership, use, and utility are interoperable. 

In the Cryptomotors case, we have an external 3rd party NFT asset that is imported into different metaverse worlds. In this hypothetical Axie <-> Cryptokitty metaverse world traversing, we have native NFT assets movement to enable universe continuity.

So how might metaverse world traversal work under the hood? The goal is to maintain this universe continuity to provide immersion. If I own an avatar (my Ethereum address) and want to maintain ownership between the different metaverse worlds (both built on top of Ethereum) I travel to, how could that be possible? An Axie can’t live in the Cryptokitty world and neither can (or should?) a Cryptokitty live in an Axie world. 

Interoperability Wormholes

Use an NFT index! NFT indexes like NFTX and NFT20 brought liquidity to the previously (and notoriously) illiquid NFT marketplace. Let’s use it as a lego piece in a hypothetical scenario for connecting two metaverse worlds.

Let’s set this hypothetical stage:

  • 2 metaverse worlds built on the same Ethereum platform : Axie world and Cryptokitty world
  • Both gameplay mechanics include owning a pet/monster and battling it
  • One avatar (your ethereum address)

In universe continuity with interoperability there should be fundamental base attributes or ownership that is shared or maintained. If I am in Universe A with a gold wristwatch and travel over to Universe B, I should still hopefully have my watch. Perhaps it’s not gold and perhaps it’s not wrapped around my wrist but rather hanging from my pocket as a silver pocketwatch, but it is still a watch that tells the time and it is still in my possession. Universes may be different, but there are still fundamental things about myself and what I own that stay with me.

If two metaverse worlds are built on the same platform why not have the ability to traverse any world on the same platform with the stuff you have? The Cryptomotors example of having an independent 3rd party NFT asset be used on multiple different metaverse worlds (Sandbox, Cryptovoxels, Decentraland, Somnium Space) can be thought of as vertical interoperability. You have NFT assets owned by your avatar’s Ethereum address traversing the different metaverse worlds.

How about horizontal interoperability? In the stage we’ve set, we have the Axie and Cryptokitties worlds with similar gameplay mechanics and one Ethereum address avatar. Let’s say we have a desire to not need to start over from scratch when entering a new world. Starting over from scratch could be in effect the equivalent of starting out with full gear (shirt, pants, shoes, hat, weapons) and your battle monsters in tow in one world and stepping through a gateway to the other world completely naked with nothing.

So to keep continuity (aka keep your own stuff while traversing worlds), you could build upon NFT indexes to act as bridges or wormholes between two worlds. With attempts at equivalent exchange, if I have 3 Axie monsters and I move into the Cryptokitty world, I could have 3 similarly featured cryptokitties. Maybe it would be that I have 1 rare Axie and 2 common Axies. I would then end up with 1 rare Cryptokitty and 2 common Cryptokitties. The exchange equivalency can be determined by the users or the metaverse worlds themselves.

Using an NFT index, you could build a rough atomic swap type mechanism with guaranteed borrow limits! Create NFT indexes of specific value on both sides of a bridge connecting two metaverse worlds. In our example, there would be a rare Axie NFT index and a common Axie NFT index with the equivalent rare Cryptokitty NFT index and common Cryptokitty index. So, the process could look like this:

You prepare to travel over to Cryptokitty world from Axie Infinity.

Axie world

  • You have your 1 rare Axie and 2 common Axies
  • You lock up your 1 rare Axie into the rare Axie NFT index with a guaranteed escrow limit
  • You lock up your 2 common Axies into the common Axie NFT index with a guaranteed escrow limit

Cryptokitty world

  • Someone else has 1 rare Cryptokitty and 2 common Cryptokitties
  • This person locks up his 1 rare Cryptokitty into the rare Cryptokitty NFT index with a guaranteed escrow limit
  • This person locks up his 2 common Cryptokitties into the common Cryptokitty NFT index with a guaranteed escrow limit

When you step over into Cryptokitty world, you pick up an equivalent 1 rare Cryptokitty and 2 common Cryptokitties! A somewhat rough and janky equivalent exchange! Meanwhile, as you are frolicking about in Cryptokitty world, your Axies that you checked into their relevant NFT indexes are now available for the same use for someone traveling into the Axie Infinity world from the Cryptokitty world! Now, the specifics can be as detailed as you want. For example, you can set it so that you can only select specific Cryptokitties in the index that have the same time limit as the ones you checked in on the Axie side to guarantee that you’ll immediately retrieve your Axies when you return. 

As NFT indexes had provided an important step for NFT liquidity, these NFT indexes can also be important in providing time limit liquidity for the borrowing and checking in they will facilitate during these metaverse interoperability traversals by users and players! Now, with the newfound utility that your NFTs have in not just one siloed world, but in many, you have a case for NFT value from its interoperability in metaverse worlds!

NFT indexes with borrow mechanisms built on top can be explored in a variety of different ways. Full function of these bridges or wormholes would ultimately be based on how open and interoperable the metaverses would like to be. In my opinion, metaverses will ultimately be filled with interoperability as there are far more interesting and valuable opportunities for collaboration. Siloing yourself would be a death sentence. Adapt or die.

These interoperability NFT wormholes or bridges can be temporary, special events (like crossover events) in the beginning and can eventually be established permanent ones as enough time and testing passes! There can be independent bridge operators that handle different sets of NFT indexes for borrowing and lending NFTs as players wish to pass through metaverses. Liquidity, as always, is king for these bridges. Liquidity mining can even be used here to incentivize the lending (or checking in) of your NFTs to be used for interoperability!

The Road to Many Paths

NFT value can indeed be augmented from the utility that it can have from its interoperability in metaverse applications. But how we can get there can be myriad. What is also fascinating to think about is what now happens when we have full (or easy) interoperability.

Hermit kingdoms and isolationist policies have existed throughout history for various reasons. Most of these reasons have involved protectionism and conflict avoidance. If virtual metaverse borders get opened up, you open up the floodgates of constructive and value additive collaboration as well as conflict. 

What happens if a metaverse is governed by governance tokens? 

Could the Cryptokitty metaverse world wage war on the Axie Infinity metaverse world? Would it look like a hostile takeover through aggregating over 51% of governance tokens? Would it look like a user vampire attack if one metaverse world is more fun or lucrative to play in?

Conflict between metaverses through interoperability could create a sort of Nolan Sorrento Effect. You would have NFT or Metaverse war games. Here, significant NFTs can hold not only just power in their interoperability, but also power in governance of applications/games and metaverses. You might see guilds can form around NFT collections that are valuable and allow shared use for members of the guild. You might see guilds or funding entities (like the Ready Player One IOI) back teams/individuals with certain NFTs to go do specific actions on behalf of them. 

Final Thoughts

In summary, this was just supposed to be a quick little writeup on NFT value that was supposed to just be one page that ballooned into more fun thought experiments as I shared it casually with friends and got their feedback. But now, if you’ve made it through this monster, there are some pretty neat examples and ways of looking at the state of our NFT, metaverse, and interoperability ecosystems!

I will also have to acknowledge that the majority of current high profile NFT hype is clout based. You have a certain celebrity or vocal minority claiming some art or collection is cool and they’re paired with high profile auctions and transactions. That’s totally cool. Clout-based value has a firm place in how value is measured. For example, in the traditional world, Supreme hypebeasts will pay $1000 USD for a box logo shirt because it means something to them.  

But there are also far more interesting experiments we’ve seen provide value to art, experiences, and gameplay. A favorite piece of mine is of Pak’s 9 piece collection called “The Title” by trent e which dives into how value is perceived and set through the identical looking images with different prices and different names. Kevin Abosch and Ai Weiwei even investigated NFT-esque value with their “Priceless” collection of ERC-20 tokens with limited transfer rights, unique and named transaction hashes, and physical collectible prints. 

Bringing in more experiments, more exploration, and more decentralization of thought on how NFT’s can be valued is important. Diversity of thought, particularly with the technology we’re pairing it with, is a meaningful and essential way of showing what can be done. The properties of self-sovereignty and robust guarantees of authenticity via the blockchain are powerful for digital rights management, art, ticketing, experiences and more. We need more of this on a global level.

NFTs have proven themselves to be that ‘killer app’ that has effectively brought in everyone from independent artists being discovered for their brilliant works to high-profile celebrities like Mark Cuban, Gary Vee, Paris Hilton, RAC, and Logan Paul. It would be a shame if all we had to show for this technology that provides strong promises of self-sovereignty, rent-seeker elimination, censorship-resistance, decentralization’s corruption resistance, and global exposure was just a limited handful of experiences. There are so many more cool ways of exploring NFT value–we just need to explore them!

Notes and Comments

  1. Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) can derive value from the demand generated by its utility.

Each NFT’s utility is potentially limitless, as each application in the metaverse can utilize the same NFT for a different utility within it’s game/world.

  1. The utility of an NFT can be augmented from its interoperable use on multiple applications in the same metaverse

The term ‘metaverse’ here can literally mean a world building metaverse like The SandBox or Cryptovoxels. A ‘Metaverse’ can just as easily mean an existing platform like Ethereum that allows for applications to use such NFTs interoperably.

This interoperability enables the Total Addressable Market (TAM) for an NFT to expand at the same or similar rate of the overall market expansion of the metaverse it is in (TAM for the NFT is not specific to the sector it is in) [SB]

Also, what’s the reason for already successful games to implement NFTs? I don’t see a ton of good reasons a private interest group would give up control over their items + monetary policies.[JK]

  • Soft
    • Applications built from the ground up to be based around a reference NFT set.
  • Forceful
    • Existing applications/games (with community governance ability) have ‘hostile takeovers’ from the community to forcefully integrate that application/game into the reference NFT set. (would not be surprising if this can already be done with the NFT whale cartels we see today or existing dapp whales)
  1. An NFT’s interoperable utility is a coordination and implementation matter among applications in a metaverse

Coordination here can simply be agreement of integration from application/game architects to set specific NFTs giving application/game augmenting attributes. How this integration is decided by architects may just as well be their sole responsibility on how they want their application/game experience to be. It may well be that certain NFTs with overpowered attributes may break application/game experience. However, the architects may see value here to add these augmenting NFTs for additional experiences for players (“spicing things up” for enhanced gameplay, difficulty adjustments, re-balancing/nerfing). Such NFTs that hold certain attributes may also provide marketing/earning potential through in-game economies and marketplaces. If you use certain NFTs in specific games, you may have chances to unlock certain features or gain additional experience/rewards.

NFTs also allow for easier market expansion. E.g. supporting Cryptopunk NFTs within your game opens up your player base to the entire Cryptopunk market. Similar to SaaS, where if an application integrates with Salesforce they significantly expand their immediate addressable market to all Salesforce users. [SB]

NFTs allow builders to target niche demographics with laser accuracy and basically no advertisement costs 😀 [AG]

Actionable Insight: Coordinate application/game architects and specific NFT sets to establish a set of interoperable utility integration. (for example, cryptopunks #1 – #100 with their various attributes will be used as character attribute boosters among 3 applications/games in a metaverse)

  1. A particular NFT’s selection for interoperable utility can be manifold

The choice by application/game architects on which NFTs will be imbued with certain attributes on their application/games can either be:

  • New: Create application interoperable NFTs specifically for purpose
  • Existing: Select existing NFTs and imbue them with attributes. Using existing NFTs helps narrative in that current generations of NFTs are building their history currently. Legend/lore building.

At this point in time, each metaverse/game developer will incorporate their own NFTs and not external NFTs into their gameplay yet. The reason they accept their own NFT is because they sell NFTs to fund their ops. Will be interesting to see a situation in the future where a game accepts various other NFTs and they can find a way to monetize in another way [BO]

If application/game architects were to choose from existing NFTs, it should likely be done from NFTs that have appropriate significance. Significance can be drawn particularly from history, lore, legends, stories, and its passage through time (provenance). These stories and histories in and of themselves provide value to art in the traditional realm of collecting and naturally flow to that of NFT art. Adding the historical provenance that blockchains provide further strengthens historical verifiability. Currently, NFT art and collectibles are going through its legend building phase. The legends and lore of specific NFTs provide prime candidates for use in interoperable utility for metaverse application/games.

Using provenance to tell a story, and therefore deriving a value from that story is a natural and powerful concept that draws from existing valuation and art valuation to the NFT ecosystem [SB]

Gauging the appropriate significance of a specific NFT collection is based on both it’s potential utility value as well as it’s cultural value. The decision of adopting an NFT within a given game/world will vary from NFT to NFT and be dependent on finding the right balance it can provide to the ecosystem from cultural and utility standpoint. [SB]

Actionable Insight: NFTs are going through a legend building process. We can coordinate which NFTs are significant to be integrated for interoperable utility with metaverse application/game architects.

Also, just want to give a shoutout to all those who reviewed and helped either provide commentary or got me to finally push this out after months! Way too many names and eyeballs have seen this to list everyone. I thought about listing everyone, but I think it may have been a bit too pretentious.
  • […] 原文标题:《LARPing Ethereum:从可互操作实用性看 NFT 的价值。》 撰文:Daniel Hwang,除了基于影响力的价值外,我们如何从 NFTs 中获得价值?你可以顺着差异化的钱包地址情况,探索来自互操作性的价值。,,1.【实用程序】非同质化代币 (NFTs) 可以从其实用性需求中获得价值。,2.【互操作性】NFT 在多个相同或不同虚拟世界应用程序上的互操作性使用可以增强 NFT 的实用性。,3.【协调】 NFT 的互操作性与虚拟世界应用程序之间的协调和实现相关。,4.【传说】选择一枚 NFT 可能是因为它的传说和意义。,,打个比方,电影《头号玩家》,让我们以流行小说 (和电影)《头号玩家》为例,1.【虚拟世界】 存在一个虚拟世界(绿洲),2.【应用程序】在那个虚拟世界中存在不同的应用程序(例如:Halliday 的寻找复活节彩蛋 [赛车游戏,迷宫 / 寻宝],p2p 战斗),3.【NFTs】 有一些特殊的项目可以为角色带来好处,使其在多个应用中都能使用。,4.【传说】每一种道具都对应特殊的传说和意义,从而证明其选择具有实用性。,,假设这些发生在区块链上会是什么样:,1.【虚拟世界】SandBox (沙盒)是一个基于区块链的虚拟世界。,2.【应用程序】在 SandBox 虚拟世界中有多种游戏 / 应用,比如其中的 3 种:赛车游戏、寻宝游戏和竞技。,3.【NFTs】在这三款游戏中,你的角色都可以使用一种叫作 cryptopunk 的 NFT,从而赋予其特殊而明显的好处 。,4.【传说】这么说吧,假设这个 cryptopunk NFTs 有价值是因为它拥有一段特别的甚至极端的历史经历和传说。比如它是最早的 5 个 cryptopunk NFT 之一,它曾被卷入一个钓鱼诈骗案件,在那时它被盗了,然后在现实中警察的帮助下恢复,罪犯最终交出了被盗 cryptopunk 的密钥。后来 Vitalik 经手,它最终被送给了现在的主人。因为这些不同的应用程序 / 游戏,cryptopunk 的故事和传说被流传下来并受人尊敬。,我很喜欢用简单的方式来看待这个概念。假设我有一根普通老旧的筷子。就目前而言,它是很便宜的,甚至毫无价值。但如果这根筷子被用来杀死希特勒,那么它的历史意义 (以及对社会的积极贡献) 就会赋予这根筷子莫大的价值。,,一个平台搭载多个应用程序,每个应用程序选择 :,在虚拟世界中,若使用金钱、财产和物品与应用程序交互,可以通过以下方式 :,-【部分开放】应用程序只允许你与自己的某一些资源交互。,-【等价交换】应用程序只允许你在同类转换时 (外部到内部交换) 与你的资源交互。,我们已经在以太坊上看到了这一点,以太坊就是这个平台。,你的以太坊地址就是你的身份 / 化身。,代币和 NFTs 是你的装备。,与你交互的合约、DAOs、dApps 和游戏是不同的领域。,在某种形式上,我们都在以太坊上 LARPing (角色扮演)—— 使用一个或多个匿名地址。你可能有专门用于挖矿的地址,有专门用于收集 NFT 的地址,还有专门用于 DAO 治理的地址等等。,每个应用程序只看到其特定功能需要的内容。DAO 只关心用于投票的治理代币,挖矿只在乎「收益」,NFT 艺术画廊只关注你的艺术品 NFTs。,因此,每个化身(地址)都承载了某段故事,它的全部历史及其走过的道路,都在区块链上有迹可循。,2020 年 DeFi 之夏挖矿活动盛行,gas 费高得离谱,用 ETH 购买艺术品收藏一直只增不减、储备中持有的 NFT 怪兽和宠物,以及公众投票产生的政治倾向。它可能显示了在刚起步时就在 DEX 交易中获得领先地位的故事。把钱投到代币合约的黑洞里,同时试图申领空投。这是它经历的第一次成功的套利交易,同时掌握了一些东西,偶然遇到一个新项目使其财富翻了十倍。,那么你的以太坊地址是什么呢?,,也许你会特意使用单独的地址去挖矿,收集 NFT 艺术,与 NFT 怪兽战斗,并在 DAOs 进行投票。,也许你有许多地址,根据其功能可以与不同的应用程序进行交互。一个用于收藏 NFT 艺术品,另一个用于挖矿。另一个可能在 DeFi 治理方面拥有不小的影响力。它本质上可以说是一群专业人士。你可以使用最开始用过的助记词控制并生成所有这些地址,因为你是它们的老大。,,让我们以「Cronje’s farming kingdom” 为例 — YEARN 的 DeFi 即插即用生态系统 — 可组合性的力量。在 yearn.finance 的保护下,无缝切换 dYdX、Aave 和 Comound 的借贷提供商来优化挖矿收益。由 Nexus Mutual 承保的协议保险加入其生态系统;来自 PowerPool 的 PowerIndex 的流动性扩展程序;以及通过 ” 合并 ” 来整合潜在的特殊冗余–即 Pickle Finance 的伙伴关系。,,「Cronje’s farming kingdom」的成功为应用程序互操作性和可组合性的概念提供了证明— 一种互操作性如何为其聚合的 DeFi 应用程序部分的总和提供有价值的工作模板。,,其他类似的挖矿「营地」已经开始互相联系,甚至还有一些微妙的中心化例子 (这是一个不幸的副产品,因为一些玩家不了解这一切的意义)。在一个去中心化和开放的平台上拥有真正去中心化和开放的应用程序,必须具有不可阻挡的互操作性。,毕竟,这些都是可能的,无需许可。它们是开放的协议、开源合约,可成为免费模板、灵感,在必要时的插入使用,没有明确的边界。,然而,通过应用 NFT 的互操作性和可组合性的概念,我们面临着实用性问题。我们拥有开放的平台和应用 : NFT 平台、艺术、画廊、游戏,甚至金融的商品化 (现在让我们先专注于艺术和游戏世界)。有些是完全开放的,有些则不是。每个人都生活在同一个区块链平台上,但有些人仍处于孤立状态,只能在自己的世界和规则内存在。,具体到基于 NFT 的游戏,它带提出了一个非常有趣的问题。大多数游戏因为一些重要的原因都是封闭的。另一些精心设计的游戏能够让玩法变得有趣,像游戏动态,取消这种动态会导致糟糕的体验。那么,真正开放的游戏或关于 NFT 收藏品的应用是否真的有意义呢?,NFT 艺术品和收藏品的实用性可以在它们被集成到的各种应用程序的互操作性方面提供重要的价值。,通过互操作性,NFTs 可以跨越应用程序之间的桥梁。这些桥梁将应用程序的范围和可潜在市场扩展到其本身的边界以外。,因此,可互操作的 NFTs 通过在许多应用程序中的实用性而具有价值。,许多应用程序从其潜在市场的扩展中发现价值。,Cryptomotors 就是一个很好的例子,,Cryptomotors 的联合创始人 Leandro 已经一头扎进了这个宇宙构建互操作性的论文中。Cryptomotors 汽车是一种 NFT,从一开始就可以在不同的虚拟世界使用,具有不同的细节层次(LOD)。例如,你可以拥有一个代表汽车的 Cryptomotors Abyssus NFT(见上图)。你也可以在 Cryptomotors 自己的平台上与其他玩家比赛,你也可以在其他虚拟世界平台上使用它——从 Sandbox 到 Cryptovoxels 再到 Somnium 以及其他任何地方。你的 Cryptomotors 汽车将在 Sandbox 和 Cryptovoxel 中看起来「体素」化。而在 Somnium 或 Decentraland 中则看起来正如显示的那般光滑流畅。,尽管细节层次不同,但你的 Cryptomotors 汽车只是一个 NFT。把它想象成在平行宇宙间穿梭。在 Somnium 中,你拥有一辆外形精致的 Cryptomotors 汽车,但你可以跳换到沙盒虚拟世界,现在它看起来像素化了。你还是你。你的 Cryptomotors 汽车还是你的汽车。,这是在沙盒虚拟世界中的 Abyssus,这是 Abyssus 在 Somnium 虚拟世界中的样子,你的以太坊地址就是你的化身 / 身份。你持有的 NFT 是你的装备。不同的虚拟世界只是平行宇宙。你可以随时使用工具在其中穿梭——考虑到不同的虚拟世界如何处理它们的边界……,外部的 NFT 组件侵占内部的 NFT 组件是争论的焦点。某些游戏和应用程序是用它们自己精心设置的规则创建和封闭的。这是没办法的事。毕竟,为什么现有的应用或游戏会为自己的内部 NFT 注入价值,而担心外部 NFT 会夺走它呢?,我认为这是游戏或应用开发者的问题。这也是一个如何实现现有发展和未来发展的问题。把现有游戏和动态与其他游戏或应用程序整合进行改进,这是一种自上而下的协调方法。然而,这样开发空间是巨大的,你可以从头开始构建游戏和应用程序,使其从第一天起就具有互操作性。这是合理的,NFT 价值产生和累积的方向在于互操作性,我们应该看到更多的应用和游戏要么整合互操作性,或者从一开始就使其具有互操作性,要么适应,要么走向死亡。,那么,如果一组特定的虚拟项目没有将自己设置为隐士王国,并将自己和宇宙的其于部分隔开来,那么互操作性如何工作呢?它应该是什么样的?,继续平行宇宙 (或虚拟世界) 的类比,假设我是一个生活在 axis Infinity 虚拟世界中的 Axie 宠物战士,但我现在想要首次前往 Cryptokitties 虚拟世界旅行 (现在是虚构的,Flow 在以太坊上建立一个才可以),后面将会怎样延续下去?,如果两个虚拟世界都采用隐士王国孤立主义的方法,即使是建立在同一个以太坊平台上,那么我就要从头开始了。如果我在 Axis Inifinity 虚拟世界中有一只值得信赖的宠物 Axie,我将在没有任何帮助下到达新的 Cryptokitty 世界。当然,这两个世界的互操作性是有限制的,但这并不意味这无法实现。是的,也许我使用同一个虚拟化身 (以太坊地址) 与两个虚拟世界交互,但不存在兼容性。,如果两个虚拟世界都采用了完全开放的方式,那么我是否真的可以带着我的装备穿梭过去?为什么不能?就像使用 Cryptomotors 方法一样,两个世界可以完全不同——甚至在细节层次的粒度上——像素化 (Sandbox) VS 平滑定义 (Somnium)。但在我选择访问的任何虚拟世界中,我的 Cryptomotors 汽车仍然是我的 Cryptomotors 汽车。我的资产仍然是我的资产。,真正自主的 NFT 所有权、使用和实用性是可互操作的。,在 Cryptomotors 案例中,我们有一个外部的第三方 NFT 资产,它被引入到不同的虚拟世界中。在这个假设的 Axie <-> Cryptokitty 虚拟世界中穿梭,我们用本地 NFT 资产移动来实现这个宇宙的连续性。,那么虚拟世界的穿梭是如何运作的呢?我们的目标是保持这个宇宙的连续性以提供沉浸感。如果我拥有一个虚拟化身 (我的以太坊地址),并且想要在我所穿梭到的不同虚拟世界 (都建立在以太坊之上) 之间保持所有权,这怎么可能呢?一个 Axie 不能生活在 Cryptokitty 的世界里,而且一个 Crytokitty 也不能 (或者应该) 生活在 Axie 的世界里。,,使用 NFT 指数!NFTX 和 NFT20 等 NFT 指数为之前流动性不足的 NFT 市场(并且臭名昭著)带来了流动性。让我们把它作为一个连接两个虚拟世界的假想场景中的乐高积木。,让我们假设这个阶段:,在具有互操作性的整体连续性中,应该有共享或维护的基本属性或所有权。如果我在宇宙 A 中带着一块金手表去了宇宙 B,我仍然希望我的手表还在。也许它不是金色的了,也许它没有缠绕在我的手腕上,而是作为一只银怀表挂在我的口袋里,但它仍然是一只可以显示时间的手表,它仍然是我的财产。宇宙也许不同了,但是关于我自己和我所拥有的东西仍然有一些基本的东西和我拥有的一切都留在我身边。,如果两个虚拟世界是建立在同一个平台上,为什么不能让你的东西在同一个平台上在任何世界中穿梭?Cryptomotors 的例子是让一个独立的第三方 NFT 资产用于多个不同的元、虚拟世界 (Sandbox, Cryptovoxels, Decentraland, Somnium Space)。这种可以被认为是垂直 / 纵向互操作性。你的虚拟化身的以太坊地址拥有 NFT 资产可以穿越不同的虚拟世界。,那么横向互操作性如何呢?在我们所设置的阶段中,我们拥有类似游戏机制的 Axie 和 Cryptokitties 世界以及一个以太坊地址虚拟化身。假设我有一个愿望,当在进入另一个新世界时,不需要从头开始。从头开始相当于在一个世界中带着全套装备 (衬衫、裤子、鞋子、帽子和武器) 和怪物战斗并且不带任何东西穿过通往另一个世界的大门。,所以为了保持连续性 (当你穿越时可以保留你自己的东西),你可以建立 NFT 指数来充当两个世界之间的桥梁或虫洞。在等效交换尝试中,如果我拥有 3 个 Axie 宠物并进入 Cryptokitty 世界,我便能拥有 3 个具有类似功能的 Cryptokitty。也许我有 1 个稀有的 Axie 和 2 个普通的 Axie。我最终会得到 1 只稀有的 Cryptokitty 和 2 只普通的 Cryptokitty。等效交换可以由用户或虚拟世界本身决定。,使用一个 NFT 指数,你可以建立一个粗略的原子互换类型的机制,并保证借贷限额 ! 在连接两个世界的桥梁的两端创建特定价值的 NFT 指数。在我们的示例中,将有一个罕见的 Axie NFT 指数和一个普通的 Axie 指数,以及同等罕见的 Cryptokitty NFT 指数,和普通 Cryptokitty 指数。因此,这个过程看起来是这样的 :,你准备去从 Axie Infinity 前往 Cryptokitty 世界。,,Axie 世界,Cryptokitty 世界,当你进入 Cryptokitty 的世界,你会得到一个等价的稀有的 Cryptokitty 和两个普通的 Cryptokitty !勉强叫做等价交换,当你在 Cryptokitty 世界中遨游时,你的 Axies,你登记到他们的相关 NFT 指数,现在可可用于从 Cryptokitty 世界进入 Axie Infinity 世界的人相同的用途 ! 例如,你可以设置它,以便仅在索引中选择与在 Axie 端签入的时限相同的特定 Cryptokitty,以保证返回时可以立即检索到 Axies。,由于 NFT 指数为 NFT 流动性提供了重要的一步,这些 NFT 指数也可以为借贷和签到提供有限的流动性,它们将在用户和玩家的虚拟世界互操作性期间提供便利 ! 现在,随着新发现的实用性,你的 NTFs 不仅在一个独立的世界中可用,而是在许多世界都是可以如此。你可以从虚拟世界的互操作性中获得 NFTs 的价值。,可以用各种不同的方式探索构建在上面机制下的 NFT 指数。这些桥或虫洞的完整功能最终将取决于虚拟世界的开放程度和互操作性。在我看来,虚拟世界最终将充满互操作性,因为有更有趣和更有价值的协作机会。把自己隔离起来就是死刑。要么适应,要么走向死亡。,这些互操作性 NFT 虫洞或桥接器一开始可能是临时的特殊事件(如交叉事件),最终可以在足够的时间和测试通过之后确定为永久事件!可以有独立的网桥运营商来处理不同的 NFT 指数集,供玩家希望通过虚拟世界进行借入和借出 NFT,流动性一如既往的是这些桥梁的基础。这里甚至可以使用流动性挖矿来激励你的 NFT 借贷(或签到),以用于互操作性!,NFT 的价值确实可以从其在虚拟世界应用中的互操作性中得到增强。达到这个目的可以有无数的方法。同样令人着迷的是,当我们拥有完全(或简单的)的互操作性时,会发生什么呢。,由于各种原因,隐士王国和孤立主义政策在历史上一直存在 。这些原因大多涉及保护主义和回避冲突。如果虚拟世界的边界被打开了,你就打开了建设性和增值合作以及冲突的闸门。,如果虚拟世界是由治理代币治理的,会发生什么?,Cryptokitty 世界会对 Axie Infinity 的世界发动战争吗?聚集超过 51% 的治理代币,会看起来像是一场充满敌意的兼并吗?如果一个虚拟世界更有趣或更有利可图,它会看起来像用户吸血鬼攻击吗?,,通过互操作性,虚拟世界之间的冲突可能会产生一种诺兰索伦托效应。你可能参与 NFT 或 Metaverse 战争游戏。在这里,重要的 NFT 不仅具有互操作性的能力,而且还具有应用程序 / 游戏和数据的治理能力。你可能会看到围绕着 NFT 收藏品而成立了公会,并且公会成员共享其使用权。你可能会看到具有某些 NFT 的行会或供资实体 (如「头号玩家」创新性线上产业,Ready Player One IOI) 支持的团队 / 个人代表他们去执行特定的操作,总而言之,这是一篇关于 NFT 价值的简短文章。当我与朋友们随意分享并获得他们的反馈时,它激起了更多有趣的思想实验。但是现在,如果您已经了解了,那么这里有一些非常简洁的例子和方法来查看 NFT、虚拟世界和互操作性生态系统的状态 !,我也必须承认,目前大多数引人注目的 NFT 炒作都是基于影响力的。有一些名人或少数人认为某些艺术品或收藏品很酷,与高级拍卖行和交易适配。那是很酷了。在价值衡量方面,影响力往往占有重要地位。例如,在传统世界中,Supreme 的炒作者会为一件它的 logo 衬衫支付 1000 美元,,因为这对他们来说意义重大。,也有更有趣的实验,它们为艺术、体验和游戏提供了价值。我最喜欢的一件作品是 Pak 的 9 件作品集,trente 将其命名为「The Title」,它深入研究了人们是如何通过具有不同价格和不同名称的相同外观的图像来感知和设定价值的。Kevin Abosch 和 Ai Weiwei 甚至用他们的 “Priceless ” 系列的 ERC-20 代币研究了 NFT 式的价值,这些代币具有有限的转让权、独特且可命名的交易哈希值以及可实际收藏的印刷品。,引入更多的实验,更多的探索,以及更多关于 NFT 价值的去中心化相关想法是很重要的。想法的多样性,特别是我们与之配对的技术,是说明我们可以做些什么的有意义且非常重要的方式。通过区块链的实现的自主权和真实性的强有力保证,对于数字版权管理,艺术品,票务,经历来说意义非凡。从全球层面上看,我们需要的更多。,NFTs 已经证明了自己是一个「杀手级应用」,它有效地将每个人引入了虚拟世界的大门,包括从杰出的作品中脱颖而出的普通艺术家,到比如 Mark Cuban, Gary Vee, Paris Hilton, RAC 和 Logan Paul 一样的知名人士。如果我们对这项提供自主权、消除中间商、抗审查、抗权力下放腐败和开源开放的技术所展示的只是非常有限的经验,那将是一种耻辱。有太可以多挖掘 NFT 价值并且非常酷的方法–我们只需要去探索它们 !,说明和注释,1. 非同质化代币 (NFTs) 可以从其实用性需求中获得价值,每个 NFT 都有无限的实用性,因为虚拟世界中每个应用程序都可以在其游戏 / 虚拟世界中使用相同的 NFT。,2. NFT 在多个相同虚拟世界应用程序上的互操作性使用可以增强其实用性。,这里的「虚拟世界」一词字面上可以指像 Sandbox 或 Cryptovoxels 这样的。它也可以简单地指以太坊等允许应用程序之间互相操作使用此类 NFT 的现有平台。,这种互操作性使 NFT 的市场总规模 (TAM) 能够以与虚拟世界总市场扩张的相同或相似的速度扩张 (NFT 的 TAM 并不特定于它所在的行业),另外,已经成功的游戏使用 NFTs 的原因是什么?我没有看有什么好的理由能让很多私人利益集团放弃对他们项目和货币政策的控制权。【JK】,一方面,基于 NFT 集合参考从头开始构建应用程序。,另一方面,现有的应用 / 游戏 (具有社区治理能力) 会被社区「恶意接管」,从而强制将应用 / 游戏整合到 NFT 集合中。(如果我们现在看到的 NFT 鲸鱼联盟或现有的 dapp 鲸鱼已经可以做到这一点,那也不足为奇了),3.NFT 的互操作性与虚拟世界应用程序之间的协调和实现相关。,这里的协调可以简单地看成是应用 / 游戏架构师的整合协议,以设置赋予应用 / 游戏增强属性的特定 NFT。这种集成是由架构师决定的,这可能是他们对自己的应用 / 游戏体验的唯一的责任。然而,架构师可能会看到添加这些增强性 NFT 为玩家提供额外体验的价值(为了增强游戏玩法,调整难度,重新平衡 / 削弱)。这种具有特定属性的 NFT 也可能通过游戏中的经济和市场提供营销 / 盈利潜力。如果你在特定游戏中使用特定的 NFTs,你可能有机会解锁特定功能或获得额外的经验 / 奖励。,NFT 也使更简单的市场扩张成为可能。例如,在你的游戏中支持 Cryptopunk NFTs 可以向你的玩家群体打开整个 Cryptopunk 市场。类似于 SaaS,如果一个应用程序与 Salesforce 集成,它们就会显著地将其市场规模扩展到所有 Salesforce 用户。,NFT 允许构建者以激光般的精确度瞄准细分市场,而且基本上没有广告成本。[AG],可行的见解:协调应用 / 游戏架构师和特定的 NFT 集合,建立一套可互操作的实用性集成。(例如,具有不同属性的 ctytoponks#1 – #100 将被用作虚拟世界中 3 款应用 / 游戏的角色属性助推器),4. 一个特定的 NFT 对互操作实用程序的选择可能是多方面的,应用 / 游戏架构师可以选择将 NFTs 植入其应用 / 游戏的某些属性中 :,这时候,每个虚拟世界 / 游戏开发者都将整合自己的 NFTs 而非外部 NFTs 到他们的游戏中。使用自己的 NFT 是因为他们出售 NFTs 来为运营提供资金。如果未来一款游戏能够接受各种不同的 NFTs,并找到另一种盈利方式,这是否会更有趣呢?【BO】,尤其可以从历史,知识,传说,故事及其在时间上的流逝来汲取意义(历史出处 / 起源)。这些故事和历史本身在传统的收集领域中为艺术提供了价值,并自然地流向 NFT 艺术领域。添加区块链提供的历史渊源进一步加强了历史可验证性。目前,NFT 艺术和收藏品正在经历其传奇的建造阶段。特定 NFT 的传说和知识为虚拟世界应用程序 / 游戏的互操作性实用程序中使用提供了主要的候选选项。,利用历史出处(起源)来讲述一个故事,从而从这个故事中获得价值,这是一个自然而强大的概念,它从现有的价值评估和艺术品价值中引入到 NFT 生态系统。[SB],衡量特定 NFT 集合的意义是基于其潜在的实用性价值及其文化价值。在特定游戏 / 世界中采用 NFT 的决定因 NFT 的不同而异,同时取决于从文化和实用角度出发,能否找到能够为生态系统提供适当平衡的方法。【SB】,可行的见解:NFT 正在经历一个传奇的构建过程。我们可以与虚拟世界应用程序 / 游戏架构师协调哪些 NFT 可集成到互操作的实用性程序中具有重要意义。,另外,想对所有审核及评论的朋友,或者帮我在数月后最终将其推出的朋友表示感谢!太多要感谢的人了,我曾考虑列出所有名单,但可能会显得在炫耀。,来源链接:globalcoinresearch.com,每个应用程序选择 :, […]

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